from biological macromolecules in solution
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Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) reveals low resolution (1-2 nm) structures of biological macromolecules in close-to-native solutions for an extremely broad range of sizes, from small peptides (few kDa) to huge macromolecular machines (few MDa) and at variable conditions. For many complicated biological systems, which may be flexible or have a dynamic nature, SAXS is the only method capable of providing structural information. Recent experimental and methodical developments have significantly enhanced the resolution and reliability of the SAXS-based structural models. This versatility and universality - and the fact that it does not need crystals to characterise the structure - make SAXS an ideal tool for systems structural biology, and the last decade saw a renaissance of biological SAXS in Europe and worldwide.